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Archive for December, 2006

Happy New Year 2007 from Outer Space

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Anyway – Mother Teresa of Calcutta

People are unreasonable, illogical, and self-centered
Love them anyway

If you do good, people may accuse you of selfish motives
Do good anyway

If you are successful, you may win false friends and true enemies
Succeed anyway

The good you do today may be forgotten tomorrow
Do good anyway

Honesty and transparency make you vulnerable
Be honest and transparent anyway

What you spend years building may be destroyed overnight
Build anyway

People who really want help may attack you if you help them
Help them anyway

Give the world the best you have and you may get hurt
Give the world your best anyway

“Hound of Heaven”

I fled Him, down the nights and down the days;
I fled Him, down the arches of the years;
I fled Him, down the labyrinthine ways
Of my own mind; and in the mist of tears
I hid from Him, and under running laughter.
Up vistaed hopes I sped;
And shot, precipitated,
Adown Titanic glooms of chasmed fears,
From those strong Feet that followed, followed after.
But with unhurrying chase,
And unperturbed pace,
Deliberate speed, majestic instancy,
They beat — and a voice beat
More instant than the Feet —
“All things betray thee, who betrays Me.”

“Alas, you knew not
How little worthy of any love you are!
Whom will you find to love ignoble thee,
Save Me, save only Me?
All which I took from you I did but take,
Not for your harms,
But just that you might seek it in My arms.
All which the child’s mistake
Fancies as lost, I have stored for you at home:
Rise, clasp My hand, and come.”
Halts by me that footfall:
Is my gloom, after all,
Shade of His hand, outstretched caressingly
“Ah, fondest, blindest, weakest,
I am He Whom you seek!
You dravest love from thee, who dravest Me.”

by Francis Thomson


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Come…, originally uploaded by emptybelly.

Come, now is the time to worship!
Come, now is the time to give your heart!
Come, just as you are to worship!
Come, just as you are before your God!

One day every tongue will confess You are God.
One day every knee will bow.
Still the greatest treasure remains for those
Who gladly choose You now!

Come, now is the time to worship!
Come, now is the time to give your heart!
Come, just as you are to worship!
Come, just as you are before your God!

One day every tongue will confess You are God.
One day every knee will bow.
Still the greatest treasure remains for those
Who gladly choose You now!

Come, now is the time to worship
Come, now is the time to give your heart
Come, just as you are to worship
Come, just as you are before your God
Come! Come! Come!

© 1998 Vineyard Songs

Hope Joy Peace Love

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Hope Joy Peace Love, originally uploaded by emptybelly.

are what I hope for you this Christmas…

Please do click here to view large on black

Food Offered To Idols – 1 Corinthians 8-10


In 1 Corinthians 8-10, Paul responds to a situation regarding meat offered to idols. What strategies did Paul suggest and how can these suggestions be applied to Christians in twenty first century Britain?

1. Context

(1a) Corinth

Corinth was a large city located on the Peloponnesian peninsula, which gave it importance as a major trade route between Africa, Asia and Europe1. It has a two stage history. Firstly as a major Greek city before being destroyed by the Romans in 146BC and secondly as a Roman colony rebuilt by Caesar in 44BC, when it was probably the capital of the Achaia province, due to its militarily strategic location2. Corinth was also wealthy due to the imposition of taxes and tariffs. Subsequently, Corinth was multicultural, pluralistic and rife with immorality. Aphrodite was worshipped devotedly with temple prostitutes and slaves, dedicated to her.3 Apparently due to the predominant immorality, the word ‘korinthiazesthai’ was created to describe their reputed behaviour4. With emperor-cult worship probably being the fastest growing religion in the Roman Empire, a new temple was built in Corinth to tower over other pagan temples5. The social strata including people from slaves to wealthy citizens, Jews and Greeks (1Cor. 12v13). It is noted by Philo as part of the Jewish Diaspora6.

(1b) Corinthian Church, Paul and 1 Corinthians

It was in this context that Paul preached the Gospel and the church in Corinth started (1 Cor.4vv14-15). It was this city, that Paul based himself for eighteen months (Acts 18v11). Prior hypothesises rightly, that Paul found Corinth “uniquely awesome” due to this multiplicity of “races, creeds, languages and cultures”.7 Paul frequented the local synagogue, to persuade Jews and Greeks about Jesus. Erastus, probably a city treasurer, was one of Paul’s Corinthian converts8. The church met in houses for worship and fellowship, probably including a house belonging to Priscilla and Aquilla9. Christiasn could not meet in synagogues, as these were out of bounds, due to Christianity not being an unofficial religion. Paul (whose authorship is not disputed), wrote 1 Corinthians from Ephesus sometime between 51AD to 55AD. This is probably one of four letters that Paul wrote to them, including 2 Corinthians and 2 non-extant documents.10 As Fee rightly notes, Paul had two main difficulties in composing this epistle. Firstly that he need to assert his diminished apostolic authority, whilst using servant-hood as paradigmatic leadership (1Cor.3vv5-9; 4vv1-5) and secondly to persuade them to alter their thinking and actions to conform to his as he followed Christ11.

(1c) Place of 1 Corinthians 8-10 within the letter – One of the major foci of 1 Corinthians is on keeping the church united and not fractured (1v10; 3v1-3; 4v14, 16; 5vv4-8; 6:1-20; 8vv9-13; 10v14 11vv33-34; 12v14). Bracketed by 1 Corinthians 6:20b and 1 Corinthians 11:1, whereby he issues commands to follow him in honouring God and imitating Jesus, Paul answers the queries set for him in their latest correspondence to him. 1 Corinthians 7 sees Paul tackling the issue of sexual immorality and marriage, where Corinthian-type attitudes to sex had infiltrated the church.

2. Analysis

In chapter 8, Paul turns to the no small matter of whether Christians can eat tōn eidōlothutōn (food offered to idols). It was not a problem unique to Corinth, as it is referred to elsewhere in the New Testament (Acts 15vv20, 29; Romans 14; Revelation 2vv14-17, 20). Christian converts from paganism faced two problems. Firstly the uniqueness of Christianity that demanded undivided loyalty to Christ alone, in a society where syncretism was endemic. Secondly, whilst avoiding overt idolatrous worship, they were not sure what they were to do with food that had been sacrificed to idols, if it was served to them when with family, friends or business associates. With animal sacrifices to idols integral to Corinthian culture, these questions naturally arose within the church.

(2a) Meat offered to idols

Chapter 8: That the meat was offered to idols is not disputed. The argument arises over whether the food was from the marketplace or from the temple’s cultic meals. Fee, decides that Paul refers only to cultic meals, on the basis that they were a ritualistic part of pagan life in the first century.12 However, Gill insists that Paul refers to meat bought from the macellum, based on archaeological evidence.13 However a more balanced viewing is that both are equally correct insomuch that meat, resultant from pagan sacrifices, was either eaten in temple restaurants and feasts or sold in the marketplace (macellum). Either way, it was meat sacrificed to idols. Paul further on, talks about meals in private homes, so ergo, macellum meat (10vv25-27). Horrell, correctly states that idolatrous temple feasts and private meals can “hardly be separated” due to “the impossibility of dividing sacred and secular contexts”.14

Meat could be purchased either at a normal market at a high price or at one the temples for a a lower price and where meat was readily available after a sacrifice had been conducted. Garland suggests several ways in which sacrificed food maybe proffered to a Christian to eat: civic life, trade unions or social clubs, party invitations and being a guest in the home of a non-Christian15. The ‘strong’, realizing that the meat was not contaminated by the idols, ate this meat without qualm or bother to conscience because they knew that idols do not actually exist (8vv4-6). Whilst their synopsis was indeed correct, their application of it was not, because they did not exhibit love to those who they caused to stumble. This was somewhat of a discouragement to those of a ‘weak’ conscience who had not yet come to know this fact (8v7,9,11-12). They thought they were being encouraged to eat this meat sacrificed to idols, and therefore go against their conscience by those who were ‘strong’. To not partake in meals was seen as anti-social and depraved – it was not the done thing!16 So for the ‘weak’, it was a challenge: to go against their conscience and weaken their faith, or risk social and/or civil ostracism. Paul, however, called such blatant ignorance by the ‘strong’, founded on knowledge and rights, sin against God and the ‘weak’. To do so, was not encouragement built on love, but a discouraging arrogance and pride (8v1). True knowledge in the Christian realm, is not some form of quasi-intellectualism, but rather a “profound insight into what one’s neighbour wants.”17

For Paul, faith was the obedient response of gratefulness to the calling of God into fellowship with Christ, rather than mere knowledge. Paul is less concerned about what the strong have become, than he is about what they are to do, which is to show Christ’s love to all purported ‘weak’ members of the Corinthian church.

Chapter 9: In order to bolster his argument, Paul now reflects upon his own choice to finance himself whilst living amongst them. The Corinth church accepted his apostleship (9v1-2), whilst others denigrated him for not using his right to fiscal and material support (9vv13-14). Paul appears to contradict what Jesus has commanded “that those who preach the gospel should receive their living from the gospel “ (9v14). Dunn, quite rightly says that Paul “ignores the Lord’s command.”18 This was due to his mission of promoting the Gospel, where Paul states he had given up his apostolic privileges, so that some may be saved through his sacrificial actions (9vv15-18). Paul goes furthers and says that “I am not anyone’s slave. But I have become a slave to everyone, so that I can win as many people as possible.” (9v19 CEV).Why does Paul do this? So the Gospel may progress unhindered, and that the prize may be won. (9v23-27). Galloway rightly asserts that Paul sought “work as a way of establishing his freedom and declaring that the gospel is not for sale”.19 Paul’s rewards was also in ensuring the Gospel was free (9v18). For Paul, he knew he had rights, both as an apostle and as a Roman. As a Roman, he ensured he used those rights only when expedient (Acts 16vv37-39; 22v29). In expressing what his rights are, he also shows that occasionally the right the thing to do is to not claim your rights, and to reflect upon the Gospel and the demands it makes.20 In talking about his apostleship, Paul extinguishes his own rights so that the Gospel can go forward. In so doing, he becomes weak to the weak, and that having rights does not necessarily mean using them so as to be a stumbling block to others. Paul’s message was that to become the person God intends, will involve sacrifice of rights in order to be obedient.

Chapter 10: Paul now turns to a warning – that if they pursue knowledge and freedom at the expense of love, they are on the road to destruction just as Israel was in the desert (10v10). The examples of Israel and the golden calf, sacrificing to Moabite gods or grumbling were all examples of idolatrous behaviour. They were supreme examples of “apostasy and opposition to God.”21 Rosner, rightly stipulates that 10v22b shows God’s jealousy will “lead him to take stern action” against the Corinthian believers without mentioning what that action might be22. As Clement so succinctly stated “Those who take advantage of everything that is lawful rapidly deteriorate into doing what is not lawful.”23 Paul states that nobody should boast about their own spirituality in case they fall (10v12). God however, is always wise and merciful, and provides a means of escape should anybody be tempted to sin in this manner. God called them into fellowship with Himself through Jesus and will guard them against unbearable tests of faith, whereby God’s faithfulness is a guarantee that Paul’s own words are dependable24. Paul writes, “Everything is permissible” (10v23) but overall, the community’s betterment as a whole overrides the rights of an individual. Paul goes further and states “Nobody should seek his own good, but the good of others.“ (10v24) In so doing, the body is built up and encouraged. Paul’s own maxim seems to be as Prior puts it “I am prepared to do what others believe to be right if that will ensure that their edification is not impeded.”25

Paul is quite clear that faithful people withstand temptation due to God’s supreme faithfulness. The one assurance they have, is that God is always faithful, and shouldn’t trust ”their own super-spirituality”.26 Ergo, there is no reason not to show love to others at the expense of conceited knowledge (10v13). As an example, Paul retakes hold of the idol and food issue. When at a meal, writes Paul, don’t ask where the food came from, just eat it (10v27) for the earth’s entirety belongs to God (Psalm 24). If however, the food was a result of a sacrifice, then it is best not to partake (10v28). Paul, finally reminds the Corinthians that he does all for the glory of God, and they should too (10v31). Paul is guided not by his own rights and needs but by the Spirit. How is God glorified? When Christ is imitated and held as an example, just as Paul endeavours to do (11v1).

Much discussion continues to take place on various issues regarding 1 Corinthians 8-10. Garland highlights the conjecture surrounding the question Paul was actually answering: Was the question “Can we eat idol food?” or “Why can’t we eat idol food?”.27 Sumney discusses whether 1 Corinthians 9:24-27, actually fits into this section28. There has also been some discussion as to whether or not Paul is specifying particular groups of people or not. Paul does not raise any titles or group names himself, but speculation continues as to whether the two groups were ‘Jew and Gentile’ or ‘Gnostics and non-Gnostics’.

However for the purposes of this paper, there will be concentration on just the one area of concern; what was Paul’s solution?

2b. What was Paul’s Solution

What solution does Paul offer the Corinthians, in relation to eating food offered to idols? Fee suggests that they not inhabit the temple for meals at all, based on that it is not showing love to others and that it is demonic fellowship(10vv21-22)29. Bultmann however disagrees and states that Paul “declares the eating of food offered to idols permitted as far as any principle is concerned” based on his summation that as idolatry is “parenthetically among other vices a practice that is out of the question for a Christian… it simply belongs in the past”.30 However this view patently contradicts scripture, which forbids idolatry of any kind.(1 Cor.10v14; Gal.5v20; Col3v5). Still takes a differing point of view and says that “some temple meals were not necessarily idolatrous in character”31 In this section, Paul commands that they run from idolatry (10v14) and that idol food is demonic. Just as the communion meal is sacred, creating a bond within participatory believers, idolatrous food feasts symbolise what Garland calls “the realm of the demonic”.32 Those who sit at the Christian Love feast (the communion), cannot simultaneously partake in demonic pagan feasts. There can be no flirtatious juxtaposition between the two, as the Israelites did in the wilderness. For demons, Wright rightly argues, “twist and distort God’s world and God’s image bearing human children”.33 Was the food itself the problem? No, for as Wright states aright “The place is off limits, the food isn’t”.34

Paul in essence pleads for believers to love one another; glorify God; put others needs above self; and not to be so wrapped up in their own salvation, to the detriment of others in causing them to stumble. Believers lives should not be governed by anything else but by “being in Christ and their belonging to Him.”35 Above all, writes Paul “imitate Christ” (11v1). For this, “is Christian freedom – being free from ourselves to glorify God by being like Christ”.36 As long as idolatry is not involved, Christian can freely accept “God’s created gifts with relaxed openness”.37 As Christ is imitated, His cross becomes the focus, and the Gospel an imperative over supposed rights or privileges. In so doing, the Church may not have uniformity of ideas, but it will have unity of purpose – the glorification of God through imitating Christ. This supreme example, gives the Church an “indelible character by its conformity to Christ”.38 Paul calls for the church to “respect its dignity as God’s ransomed community” in order that it can fulfil its explicit calling to be a holy people.39

3. Application

Currently in the United Kingdom we may not face persecution or ostracism due our not eating of particular foods which result from pagan animal sacrifices. What does this passage have to say to us, in twenty-first century Britain, and how we apply it? Should Christians refrain from drinking alcohol, in a country which has a seemingly inherent problem with alcohol, in order to show that alcohol is not necessary to live life to the full?

The question posed, polarises opinion. Some would say, there is no problem because alcohol in and of itself is not the problem, and it is an individual’s choice whether or not they regularly imbibe without getting inebriation. This of course is true. However, the problem may arise when a Christian brother who has turned from alcoholism, sees his fellow Christians freely drinking alcohol, and reverts once more back to an alcoholic lifestyle. As Christians, we are free to drink alcohol in public houses or in private, that is our right. However, if we are to take the application from 1 Corinthians 8-10, it would be better for us not to partake of what is euphemistically called ‘the demon drink’, in order that some may be saved. Whilst drinking alcohol in itself is not a sin, it may causes others to sin.

That is not to say, Christians should not frequent public houses or other places where alcohol is imbibed, but rather by drinking non-alcoholic drinks, he or she may be asked as to why they do not drink alcohol, and then be able to give an answer in accordance with 1 Peter 3v15.

It may well be that by giving up this right, that some may be saved. There is a tension that exists between loving others and an individual’s personal rights, and it is how we deal with it, and are lead through the quagmire of issues that if we seek to glorify God, “the community as a whole should make it possible to extend justice and peace to more and more people who may thus be drawn into the reign of God”.40


We have seen in this passage, Paul give an exposition regarding rights, freedom, encouragement and loving of others. As twenty first century Christians, we need to forego what we perceive are our rights, in order that the body is built up and that our Lord is glorified through our imitation of Him. In so doing, the church can be a bright light in a dark, secular world.


Baird, W., ‘1 Corinthians 10:1-13’ in in “Interpretation” Volume XLIV Number 3 July 1990, Richmond: Union Theological Seminary, 1990

Bray, G (Ed.)., Ancient Christian Commentary on Scripture – New Testament Volume VII 1-2 Corinthians, Downers Grove: IVP, 1999

Bultmann, R., Theology Of The New Testament Volume 1, London: SCM Press, 1952

Crocker, CC., Reading 1 Corinthians In The Twenty-First Century, London: T&T Clark, 2004

Dunn, JDG., 1 Corinthians, Sheffield: Sheffield Academic Press, 1995

Evans, CA & Porter, SE. (Eds), Dictionary Of New Testament Background, Leicester: IVP, 2000

Fee, GD., The First Epistle To The Corinthians, Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1987

Furnish, VP., ‘Belonging to Christ’ in “Interpretation” Volume XLIV Number 2 April 1990, Richmond: Union Theological Seminary, 1990

Garland, D., ‘The Dispute Over Food Sacrificed To Idols’ in “Perspectives in Religious Studies” Volume 30 (2003), Waco: National Association of Baptist Professors of Religion, 2003

Gill, DWJ., “The Meat Market At Corinth” in Tyndale Bulletin 43.2 November 1992, Cambridge: Tyndale Press

Guthrie, D., New Testament Theology, Leicester: IVP, 1981

Hawthorne, GF & Martin, RP. (Eds), Dictionary Of Paul And His Letters, Leicester: IVP, 1993

Hays, RB., First Corinthians, Louisville: John Knox Press. 1997

Horrell, DG., The Social Ethos Of The Corinthian Correspondence, Edinburgh: T&T Clark, 1996

Martin, RP., Word Biblical Themes – 1, 2 Corinthians, London: Word Publishing, 1988

Murphy-O’Connor, J., 1 Corinthians, Oxford: Bible Reading Fellowship, 1997

Prior, D., The Message Of 1 Corinthians, Leicester: Carlisle, 1985

Rosner, BS., “’Stronger Than He?’ The Strength Of 1 Corinthians 10:22b” in Tyndale Bulletin 43.1 May 1992, Cambridge: Tyndale Press

Soards, ML., 1 Corinthians, Carlisle: Paternoster Press, 1999

Stambaugh, JF., The Social World Of The First Christians, London: SPCK, 1986

Still III, EC., ‘Paul’s Aims Regarding ΕІΔΩΛΟΘΥΤΑ’ in “Novum Testamentum“ Volume XLIV Number 4, 2002, Leiden : Brill Academic, 2002

Sumney, JL., ‘The Place Of 1 Corinthians 9:24-27 In Paul’s Argument’ in “Journal of Biblical Literature“ 119/02 2000, Atlanta: Society of Biblical Literature, 2000

Wright, NT., Paul: Fresh Perspectives, London: SPCK, 2005

Wright, T., Paul for Everyone 1 Corinthians, London: SPCK, 2003

1McRay, JR., Dictionary of New Testament Background, p.228

2Horrell, DG., The Social Ethos Of The Corinthian Correspondence, p.64-65

3Stambaugh, JE., The Social World Of The First Christians, p.158

4Fee, GD., The First Epistle To The Corinthians, p.2

5Wright, NT., Fresh Perspectives on Paul, p.64-65

6Hafemann, ST., Dictionary of Paul & His Letters, p.173

7Prior, D., The Message Of 1 Corinthians, p.12

8McRay, J., Dictionary of New Testament Background, p.229

9ibid, p.229

10Hafemann, ST., Dictionary of Paul & His Letters, p.164

11Fee, GD., The First Epistle To The Corinthians, p.7

12Fee, GD., The First Epistle To The Corinthians, p.360

13Gill, DJ., The Meat Market At Corinth, p.389

14Horrell, DG., The Social Ethos Of The Corinthian Correspondence, p.146

15Garland, D., The Dispute Over Food Sacrificed To Idols, p.174-177

16Garland, D., The Dispute Over Food Sacrificed To Idols, p.185

17Murphy-O’Connor, JM., 1 Corinthians, p.87

18Dunn, JG., 1 Corinthians, p.99

19Galloway, LE., Preaching Freedom To The Corinthians, p.21

20Wright, T., Paul for Everyone 1 Corinthians, p.107

21Baird, W., 1Corinthians 10:13, p.289

22Rosner, BS., ‘Stronger Than He?’, p.178

23Cited in Bray, G., Ancient Christian Commentary on Scripture Volume VII 1-2 Corinthians, p.100

24Guthrie, D., New Testament Theology, p.109

25Prior, D., The Message of 1 Corinthians, p.176

26Soards, ML., 1 Corinthians, p.205

27Garland, DE, The Dispute Over Food Sacrificed To Idols, p.184

28Sumney, JL., The Place Of 1 Corinthians 9:24-27 In Paul’s Argument, p.329-333

29Fee, GD., The First Epistle To The Corinthians, p.472

30Bultmann, R., Theology of the New Testament Volume 1, p.99

31Still III, EC., Paul’s Aims Regarding ΕІΔΩΛΟΘΥΤΑ, p.336

32Garland, DE, The Dispute Over Food Sacrificed To Idols, p.193

33Wright, T., Paul for Everyone 1 Corinthians, p.132

34Wright, T., Paul for Everyone 1 Corinthians, p.137

35Furnish, D., Belonging To Christ, p.155

36Prior, D., The Message Of 1 Corinthians, p.177

37Hays, RB., First Corinthians, p.180

38Hays, RB., First Corinthians, p.181

39Martin, RP., Word Biblical Themes 1 & 2 Corinthians, p.107

40Crocker, CC., Reading 1 Corinthians In The Twenty-First Century, p.105

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